Prediabetes refers to blood glucose (sugar) levels that are higher than normal, but not yet high enough to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes (i.e. a fasting plasma glucose level of 7.0 mmol/L or A1C of 6.5 per cent or higher). Although not everyone with prediabetes will develop type 2 diabetes, but many people will.
It is important to know if you have prediabetes, because research has shown that some long-term complications associated with diabetes – such as heart disease – may begin during prediabetes.
Like type 2 diabetes, prediabetes can occur without you knowing it, so being aware of your risks and getting tested are important. This is especially true if you have prediabetes as part of the “metabolic syndrome,” meaning you also have high blood pressure, high levels of LDL cholesterol (the “bad” cholesterol) and triglycerides, low levels of HDL cholesterol (the “good” cholesterol) and excess fat around the waist.
The risk for type 2 diabetes is higher as you grow older, so Diabetes Canada recommends screening for everyone once they reach age 40 and every three years after that. If you have risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes, you should be tested more frequently or start regular screening earlier.
The good news
Research has shown that if you take steps to manage your blood sugar when you have prediabetes, you can delay or prevent type 2 diabetes from developing. You may be able to reduce blood sugar levels with simple changes, such as increasing your physical activity and enjoying a healthy eating pattern.
Losing even a modest amount of weight (five to 10 per cent of total body weight) through healthy eating and regular physical activity can make a huge difference in your health and quality of life.
When healthy behaviour changes are not enough to normalize blood sugar, your health-care provider might recommend that you use oral medication.
If you have prediabetes, you are at increased risk for heart disease or stroke. Your doctor may wish to also treat or counsel you about cardiovascular risk factors such as tobacco use, high blood pressure and high cholesterol.
The important thing to remember about prediabetes is that it doesn’t always lead to diabetes. If you have prediabetes, taking steps to manage your blood sugar gives you a chance to change your future to one that does not include type 2 diabetes.